Fodnoter
     

  
     

 3a - Begrebsforståelse "projekt"
Bjarne Kousholt (2008) tildeler et projekt følgende kendetegn:
  • "et klart defineret formål, med en slutdato
  • ukendte faktorer og risici
  • grænser for omkostninger og ressourceforbrug
  • nye erfaringer og nye resultater
  • udfordrer vanetænkning og udfordrer en statisk organisation
  • samarbejde på tværs"
Andre definitioner har højt fokus på ledelsesinitiativet, hhv. fremhæver de processer der skal ændres.

ISO  kvalitetsmanagements norm for projekter EN 9000:2005 beskriver fx et projekt som "ein einmaliges Vorhaben, das aus einem Satz von abgestimmten, gelenkten Tätigkeiten mit Anfangs- und Endtermin besteht und durchgeführt wird, um unter Berücksichtigung von Zwängen bezüglich Zeit und Ressourcen ein Ziel zu erreichen".
     

 3a - Definition "program", Gower Handbook, 2006
  • "Less well-defined end date, some go on forever, or until a defined organization state has been achieved
  • Focus is on delivering benefits (which may be both financial and non-financial), requires involvement after projects have ended
  • Every programme must directly benefit the organization in some way
  • More complex; interface with the strategy, contain many projects, drive operational change
  • Exist in a world that is constantly changing. These changes need to be constantly monitored and their impact on the programme and its projects controled and managed
  • Macro view; have to consider the combined effect of a portfolio of projects, which should produce synergistic benefits, but sometimes conflict with each other. A balanced view is needed, which sometimes is detrimental to a few projects in the portfolio"
     

litteratur & bilag